The Islamic State burst onto the Middle East scene as an entity whose conduct and very essence challenge the existing regional order. With its military conquests in Iraq and Syria, its establishment of branches elsewhere in the Middle East and beyond, its state-like governance in the areas under its control, and the cruelty it typically exhibits, the Islamic State has become the focus of regional and international interest and concern. The articles compiled in The Islamic State: How Viable Is It? examine ways of dealing with one of the most salient military, sociopolitical, cultural, and intellectual challenges on today’s global agenda. There are numerous question marks surrounding the future of the Islamic State. Relating to historical, religious, military, economic, social, cultural, and geopolitical aspects, the articles in this volume address many of the questions prompted by the dramatic emergence of the Islamic State and examine ideas on how to grapple with this phenomenon. Taken together, they paint a portrait of the complex reality that has evolved in the Middle East in recent years, and attempt to outline future trends. In addition to this multidisciplinary interpretation of the Islamic State and its related challenges, the collection presents insights that can assist in formulating policies to cope with this challenging situation.